Evolution of 5G Technology

5G will provide services across a wide swath of disruptive technologies. Improvements in performance over LTE will be essential to the future use of many of these emerging application. Today more than half of executives at large mobile network operators believe there are no any compelling near- term business cases for 5G. 5G promises a step change in network performance for those operators that are ready to invest in it. 4G network do not enable the range of services that the future requires. 5G will be faster and more flexible. It’s change the way of Social Media.

American President Donald J. Trump tweet:

“I want 5G, and even 6G, technology in the United States as soon as possible. It is far more powerful,faster, and smarter than the current standard. American companies must step up their efforts, or get left behind. There is no reason that we should be lagging behind on …..”



The Evolution

5G evolution in mobile
5G evolution in Mobile phones devices
  • 1G –> 1991—> Analog network with voice, AMPS,TACS
  • 2G –>1991 –> Analog to digital transition, introduced data services such as text messaging and more secure, GSM, EDGE, data up to 3Mbp/s
  • 3G –> 2001 —> More spectrum allowed basic access to more than just voice and text services such as e-mail, UMTS/HSPA, data up to 2Mbp/s
  • 2010 —> Merged cellular and IP technologies, LTE, data up to 50M p/s
  • 5G —> 2020—> A fundamental shift in the way we construct and manage mobile network infrastructure. Enables mass connectivity of devices and applications, 1000 time faster than 4G network, Amazing Connectivity, Fibre like experience

Building the Foundation for 5G

  • 5G is all about high-band spectrum, which Sprint has commercially deployed
  • 2.5 GHZ spectrum is considered the low-band spectrum for 5G
  • Street furniture such as poles not towers
  • Signal from both side of wall
  • Network Function Virtualization
  • Software Defined Networking

5G Network Slicing

5G networking slicing
Structure of 5G network slicing

5G network slicing enables service poviders to build virtual end-to-end neworks tailored to application requirements.

  • Mobil broad band ——> Communation, Entertainment, Internet
  • Machine to machine –> Retail, Shipping, Manufacturimg
  • Reliable low latency –>Automative, Medical, Infrastructure
  • Others ———————-> Other Applications

Some Real Points about 5G

 Mission Critical Control

  • Strong Security : Health, Government, Financial trusted
  • Ultra high reliability : 10^5 per 1 millisecond
  • Ultra – low latency : As low as 1 millisecond
  • Extreme user mobility : Up to 500km/h

Enhanced Mobile Broadband

  • Deep Awareness : Discovery and optimization
  • Extreme Data Rates : Multi-Gbps peak rates; 100+ Mbps user experienced rates
  • Extreme Capacity : 10 Tbps per Km^2

Massive Internet of Things

  • Ultra-high density : 1 million nodes per Km^2
  • Ultra-low complexity : 10s of bits  per second
  • Ulra-low energy : 10+ years of  battery life
  • Deep Coverage : To reach challenging locations

Enabling Smart Industry

5G test
5G smart industry test area
  • Cutting the cord : Wireless industrial Ethernet enables reconfigurable factories
  • Enabling new use cases: Such as operators using augmented reality glasses
  • Leveraging big data analytics : Edge analytics of massive real time data collection increases productivity

Private 5G NR Network Enables the next Industrial revolution

New Capabilities

  • URLLC – ultra reliable, low latency
  • Time sensitive networking

Large Cellilar Ecosystem

  • Global solutions
  • Certified inter operability

More Spectrum

  • Licensed, shared, unlicensed
  • Low, mid, mmWave spectrum

Single Network for the Entire Factory

  • Multimode network supporting LTE and 5G NR
  • Scalable to all connectivity needs

Quick Figure of 5G

  • Real Time Performance : Fast response time, low jitter, latency and delay, high availability
  • Critical infrastructure : Hugh reliability, priority access, very wide area coverage
  • Very high speed broadband : Gigabit data rates, high quality coverage, multi spectrum service
  • IoT and M2M : Many more connected devices, deep indoor coverage, signaling efficiency
  • Virtualized Infrastructure

“Rolling out 5G is absolutely insane … and doing so without a single biological test of safety has got to be about the stupidest idea anyone has had in the history of the World.”

Dr Martin Pall

5G Technology Cost Impact

An Illustration : Capex Stress from

  • Massive cell densifications
  • Smaller & Smallest cell connectivity.
  • Operators likely Backbone modernization / uplift.
  • Core,IT & Platforms more likely to be within spend profile ( on average ).
  • Depends on complexity ,e.g., slicing…

An Illustration : Opex Pressure from

  • Overall poor economical scalability of small, smaller & smaller cells.
  • Open impact will depend on level of fixed -mobile integration & the technology modernization level.
  • Dependency of level of automation & degree of zero – touch network state.

The Landscape of 5G




5G will differentiate itself by delivering various improvements

  • 10X : Decrease in latency = Delivering latency as low as 1 ms.
  • 10X : Connection density = Enabling more efficient signaling for lot connectivity.
  • 10X : Experienced throughput = Bringing more uniform , multi-Gbps peak rates.
  • 3X : Spectrum efficiency = Achieving even more bits per Hz with advanced antenna technique.
  • 100X : Traffic capacity = Driving network hyper-densification with more small cells everywhere.
  • 100X : Network efficiency = Optimizing network energy consumption with more efficient processing.

All Flavors of 5G are Developing in Parallel!

All tracks include higher integration and further RF Sip development

5G mm Wave 

  • mmWave 5G technology – disruptive innovation
  • Introduction of mmWave frequencies >24 GHz
  • Adoption of new packaging architectures and platforms
  • Major design changes and new materials required

5G sub 6 GHz

  • Upgrade of 4G technology – incremental innovation
  • Will stay at frequencies < 6GHz 
  • Modification of current RF packaging architectures 
  • Minimal change in BOM

5G IoT

  • Used frequencies < 1GHz
  • To address transfer of data generated by many IoT end devices ( mainly sensors )
  • Still undefined standards / protocols
  • Little to no innovation regarding semiconductor packaging

For more info please visit this blog : What is 5G technology?

see also : 5 Things to know about 5G wireless technology




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What is Cloning?

Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the both two! You might not believe, but there are human clones among us right now. They’re identical twins, created naturally not made in lab.




There are many types of cloning, some are given below:

Human Cloning

Human Cloning
Twins Cloned baby

Man is not God and shall not play God. Imagine yourself a clone and the only reason you have entered this world is to provide spare organs. What is the purpose of you life?

Purpose of cloning:

  • The production of babies for those such as infertile couples, single women, gays and couples whose children have died.
  • With cloning, doctors who perform plastic surgeries instead of using silicon and others materials which are foreign to the body, will be able to manufacture bone, fat and connective tissue that matches the patient’s tissue exactly

Animal Cloning

What is cloning?
Example of animal cloning
  • The goal of cloning is to take control of the reproductive process.
  • You are able to select the specific combination of genes to get what you want.
  • That’s appealing to people who breed animals

Natural Cloning

  • Plants are easy to clone- gardeners often take cutting to grow new plants which are clones
  • Cloning is an example of asexual reproduction where genetic information comes from just one parent
  • Potato plants reproduce vegetatively by growing tubers, from which the new plant will grow these are clones

Now we discuss more interesting topics:

SIM Cloning

Sim cloning
Image of SIM Cloning

SIM or Subscriber identification Module is a smart card that is include in every cellphone of the GSM family of networks

How to Clone SIM Card?

  • Scan the SIM to extract IMSI and KI, the 128 bit key.
  • Now put the IMSI and Ki into some card software.
  • And then copy it into a new SIM card
  • We now have a cloned SIM

Phone Cloning

How is a Phone Cloned?

  • Capture the ESN/MIN pair or SIM/IMEI pair.
  • Clone the ESN/MIN pair using electronic scanning devices.
  • The cloner reprograms or alters the microchip of any wireless phone.
  • The ESN/MINs are transferred using a computer to a device.
  • These devices are connected to handsets.
  • New information is legitimate phone into the phone.
  • Thus a clone of the legitimate phone is thus obtained.

What is the purpose of cloning?

  • Making fraudulent phone calls
  • Getting owner messages.
  • Using internet on owners bill
  • Using phone to commit a crime.
  • Getting personal information of owner.
  • Listening owner calls.
  • To tease anybody etc.

Cloning Laws Around the World

  • USA

No federal law banning cloning , but several states have passed their own laws to ban the practice. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has also said that anyone in the United States attempting human cloning must first get its permission.

  • Japan

In Japan Human cloning is a crime that is punishable by up 10 years in prison

  • UK

UK has allowed cloning human embryos, but is working to pass legislation to stop total human cloning.

Cloning, Good or Bad

Good

  • People can get an animal that looks the same as the pet they had
  • Scientists can clone organs and help people live longer
  • Scientists can also clone body parts such as ears to surgically attach to a person
  • Cloned animals are safe to eat

Bad

  • The offspring of cloned animals are often born deformed
  • It is against religious beliefs
  • Pets that are cloned often do not come out having the same personality and can look different

Why Cloning is Bad for Society

  • It will contradict the religious beliefs
  • Uncertain results
  • Over population
  • Identity Crisis
  • It may build a new world of fraud and unethical practices
  • Against the law of nature

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