Blockchain Technology

What is blockchain?

The block chain is a database of information. This information is not stored in a single place, but across a variety of data servers that participate in the network, this is what is meant by “decentralized” there is no central point. Identities are kept completely private, through the cryptography, however all transactions that happen on the block chain are open to viewing by anyone at any tie for always.

Trust in the block chain is enough to transact with anyone. Every record that’s written on a block chain is secured by a unique cryptographic key, making the block chain and it’s information immutable.

How Does a Block chain Work

  • A user requests for a transaction
  • A block representing the transaction is created
  • The block is broadcast-ed to all the nodes of the network
  • All the nodes validate the block and the transaction
  • The block chain is added to the chain
  • The transaction gets verified and executed

How to create a blockchain transaction?

  • When 2 parties initiate a transaction, blockchain assigns an encryption
  • Blockchain verifies the transaction and creates a block
  • The new block is appended to the blockchain
  • The blockchain transaction is now complete and the ledger is updated

Blockchain Checklist

  • Database: Block chain is a unique shared database technology. A block chain project must use a structured data repository
  • Mistrust: Block chain implies multiple non-trusting writers. They don’t allow other users to modify their entries.
  • Interaction: The block chain transactions often depend on another writer’s transactions created collaboratively without exposing the parties to risks
  • Writers: Block chain relies on multiple writers who generate transactions modifying the database
  • Disinter Mediation: No central gatekeeper needed to verify transactions and  authenticate their sources
  • Rules: The database is modified by various non-trusting writers. It must contain integrated rules that restrain the transactions and define legitimate transactions.

7 Ways the blockchain can help the environment

  • Environmental treaties:  Track real impact and compliance of environmental treaties decrease fraud and manipulation
  • Non-Profits: Track where donations are going decrease inefficiency and bureaucracy in charities
  • Carbon Tax: Calculate tax for products based on carbon footprint create a reputation system for companies based on emissions
  • Changing Incentives: Align incentives with sustainable practices create incentives for people to act in sustainable ways
  • Supply Chains: Transparently track products from origin to store shelf reduce carbon footprint and unsustainable practices.
  • Recycling: Encourage recycling by providing tokenized reward track and evaluate efficacy of recycling programs
  • Energy: Increase efficiency with P2P electrical grids improve access to power in areas with poverty or natural disasters.

Enterprises Which are Implementing Block chain Technology

Data Protection

  • Apple: Patented block chain technology for time stamping data
  • Facebook: Exploring the use of block chain to enhance data security and users privacy.
  • Google: Exploring the use of block chain technology to enhance cloud services security and for data protection.
  • Baidu: Using block chain to enhance intellectual rights management.

Transportation

  • Ford: Leveraging block chain technology to enhance the mobility of technologies.
  • Toyota: Planning to use block chain technology to enhance autonomous driving technology
  • British Airways: Implementing block chain to manage flight data as well as verifying travelers identity

Data Integrity

  • AIA Group: Launched the first of it’s kind bancassurance for sharing policy data

Healthcare

  • United Health Care: Using block chain technology to improve doctors directories to enable accurate insurance claim fillings.
  • MetLife : Using block chain technology for storing patients medical records for insurance purposes.

Supply Chains

  • Walmart: Using block chain technology to track product movement from farmers to stores.
  • Samsung: Intends to use block chain technology to enhance supply chain management when it comes to electronics shipments.
  • UPS : Block Chain powered logistics monitoring and management solution
  • Maersk: Block chain system for tracking movement of shipments between ports.
  • Nestle: Using block chain technology in supply management to track baby food products.

Trading

  • FeedEx: Working on block chain solution for setting customer disputes.
  • BHP Billiton: Leveraging block chain technology for supply chains management.
  • Prudential: Unveils a block chain powered trading platform for small and medium sized enterprises.

E-Commers

  • Tencent: A solution for verifying invoice authenticity and for ensuring tax compliance.
  • Alibaba: Using block chain technology to track luxury goods in it’s e-commerce platforms.

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Social Engineering Attacks

An attack or a hack through which the attacker users social skills via human interaction to obtain or compromise information about an organization or its computer systems is known as a social engineering attacks. Your data is at risk everyday through social engineering attacks because hacking a human is much easier than hacking a business.

What motivates social engineers?

  • Obtaining personal information.
  • Gaining unauthorized access.
  • Circumventing established procedures.
  • Because they can.




Common Attacks

Personal Approach :- In personal approaches, the social engineering may directly ask for approach in general meeting or gathering and get personal or critical information directly or indirectly about you.

Telephone :- Request information usually through the imitation of a legitimate bank/company through system to get critical information such as bank/credit card data.

Online :- Internet connectivity enables attackers to approach individuals or employee an anonymous internet source and convince them to provide information through a believable user.

Ransomware a Nightmare for Businesses

Ransomeware
Ransomware is an attack that installs covertly on a company’s computer

Ransomware is an attack that installs covertly on a company’s computer, blocking or limiting user access and demanding a ransom payment to restore it. This is one of the fastest growing cyber threats and is expected to increase 400% every years.

The state of ransomware

  • 25% of organizations had to cease business operations immediately because of ransomware.
  • 81% of business have experienced a cyber attack.
  • 66% have suffered a data breach
  • 35% were victims of ransomware
  • 72% of companies affected by ransomware that could not access data for at least 2 days following the attack.
  • 32% that lost access to their data for
  • $10-$50 million estimated monthly income for cyber criminals from ransomware

Ways to Stop Social Engineering Attack

  • Walk through company and make sure employees are not leaving personal or sensitive information in plain view of passing people such as e-mail accounts, login information, passwords etc.
  • Use dummy accounts to monitor networks, and also use the admin account as a dummy as well and monitor who attempts to access it and trap them in the act.
  • Make a security policy that enforces that passwords must contain a certain combination of words,numbers and characters.
  • Never allow an employee to leave their terminal or desk without first logging out of their respected machine or workstation

Tips for Avoiding a Social Engineering Attack

  • Limit public information:- Limit the amount of personal information that you share online.
  • Be a skeptical:- Always question requests for sensitive information.
  • Trust but verify:- Don’t share information with people you don’t know unless you can verify their identity.
  • Call them back:- Through the main switchboard if possible.
  • No password over the phone:- Never share your password with anyone over the phone

Spot Fake E-mails and Stay Safe

In June 2015, famous company Ubiquiti networks Inc. willing wired $46.7 million to fake bank accounts in china. Why? Because the company CEO asked them to an email. Of course, the actual CEO never made any such request a group of hackers did.

  • Contact information:- The email contains a generic salutation or lacks any contact information for the recipient to use if they have questions.
  • Spelling and grammar errors:- The email contains clear spelling or grammatical errors or emails from legitimate companies are normally proof read extensively before sending.
  • Requests personal information:- The email requests that you follow a link to log in, or request personal information such as a credit card pin number or password.
  • High urgency or threats:- The email creates a high sense of urgency, or threatens consequences for inaction.
  • Fake web links:- The sender’s displayed name and email address do not match the purported company the email represents, or the links send the recipient to other websites not associated with the purported company

Notes : 80% of attacks are phishing




Cyber Scams

Social engineering exploits the goodwill of unwitting victims. Here’s how….

  • Website Spoofing:- Bogus websites masquerade as the real thing, tricking victims into sharing sensitive information.
  • Phishing :- Emails impersonate legitimate businesses to acquire information. This websites will request information through forms ad offer downloads containing malware.
  • Social Media Phishing :- In social media phishing is when attackers use social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram instead of email to obtain your sensitive personal information or click on malicious links.
  • Baiting :- In baiting, the attacker dangles something enticing to move his victim to action. Physical media sources loaded with malware infect computers and steal information.
  • Impersonation :- Scammer impersonates a trusted sources online or in person to obtain valuable information
  • Poser :- Attackers poses as a vendor, client or employee and sends email from what links like a reputable source.

How to Spot a Phishing

Phishing is a technique used to fraudulently obtain usernames, passwords, credit card numbers and other sensitive information.

Fraudulent emails typically ask you to:

  • Open an attachment
  • Click on link, redirecting you to a malicious website.
  • You may be prompted to enter personal information.

Types of Phishing Attacks

  • Spear Phishing: A highly targeted form of phishing that hones in on a specific group of individuals or organization.
  • Whaling: A form of phishing, targeted at executive level individuals.
  • Cloning: Whereby a legitimate email is duplicated but, the content is replaced with malicious links or attachments.



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Evolution of 5G Technology

5G will provide services across a wide swath of disruptive technologies. Improvements in performance over LTE will be essential to the future use of many of these emerging application. Today more than half of executives at large mobile network operators believe there are no any compelling near- term business cases for 5G. 5G promises a step change in network performance for those operators that are ready to invest in it. 4G network do not enable the range of services that the future requires. 5G will be faster and more flexible. It’s change the way of Social Media.

American President Donald J. Trump tweet:

“I want 5G, and even 6G, technology in the United States as soon as possible. It is far more powerful,faster, and smarter than the current standard. American companies must step up their efforts, or get left behind. There is no reason that we should be lagging behind on …..”



The Evolution

5G evolution in mobile
5G evolution in Mobile phones devices
  • 1G –> 1991—> Analog network with voice, AMPS,TACS
  • 2G –>1991 –> Analog to digital transition, introduced data services such as text messaging and more secure, GSM, EDGE, data up to 3Mbp/s
  • 3G –> 2001 —> More spectrum allowed basic access to more than just voice and text services such as e-mail, UMTS/HSPA, data up to 2Mbp/s
  • 2010 —> Merged cellular and IP technologies, LTE, data up to 50M p/s
  • 5G —> 2020—> A fundamental shift in the way we construct and manage mobile network infrastructure. Enables mass connectivity of devices and applications, 1000 time faster than 4G network, Amazing Connectivity, Fibre like experience

Building the Foundation for 5G

  • 5G is all about high-band spectrum, which Sprint has commercially deployed
  • 2.5 GHZ spectrum is considered the low-band spectrum for 5G
  • Street furniture such as poles not towers
  • Signal from both side of wall
  • Network Function Virtualization
  • Software Defined Networking

5G Network Slicing

5G networking slicing
Structure of 5G network slicing

5G network slicing enables service poviders to build virtual end-to-end neworks tailored to application requirements.

  • Mobil broad band ——> Communation, Entertainment, Internet
  • Machine to machine –> Retail, Shipping, Manufacturimg
  • Reliable low latency –>Automative, Medical, Infrastructure
  • Others ———————-> Other Applications

Some Real Points about 5G

 Mission Critical Control

  • Strong Security : Health, Government, Financial trusted
  • Ultra high reliability : 10^5 per 1 millisecond
  • Ultra – low latency : As low as 1 millisecond
  • Extreme user mobility : Up to 500km/h

Enhanced Mobile Broadband

  • Deep Awareness : Discovery and optimization
  • Extreme Data Rates : Multi-Gbps peak rates; 100+ Mbps user experienced rates
  • Extreme Capacity : 10 Tbps per Km^2

Massive Internet of Things

  • Ultra-high density : 1 million nodes per Km^2
  • Ultra-low complexity : 10s of bits  per second
  • Ulra-low energy : 10+ years of  battery life
  • Deep Coverage : To reach challenging locations

Enabling Smart Industry

5G test
5G smart industry test area
  • Cutting the cord : Wireless industrial Ethernet enables reconfigurable factories
  • Enabling new use cases: Such as operators using augmented reality glasses
  • Leveraging big data analytics : Edge analytics of massive real time data collection increases productivity

Private 5G NR Network Enables the next Industrial revolution

New Capabilities

  • URLLC – ultra reliable, low latency
  • Time sensitive networking

Large Cellilar Ecosystem

  • Global solutions
  • Certified inter operability

More Spectrum

  • Licensed, shared, unlicensed
  • Low, mid, mmWave spectrum

Single Network for the Entire Factory

  • Multimode network supporting LTE and 5G NR
  • Scalable to all connectivity needs

Quick Figure of 5G

  • Real Time Performance : Fast response time, low jitter, latency and delay, high availability
  • Critical infrastructure : Hugh reliability, priority access, very wide area coverage
  • Very high speed broadband : Gigabit data rates, high quality coverage, multi spectrum service
  • IoT and M2M : Many more connected devices, deep indoor coverage, signaling efficiency
  • Virtualized Infrastructure

“Rolling out 5G is absolutely insane … and doing so without a single biological test of safety has got to be about the stupidest idea anyone has had in the history of the World.”

Dr Martin Pall

5G Technology Cost Impact

An Illustration : Capex Stress from

  • Massive cell densifications
  • Smaller & Smallest cell connectivity.
  • Operators likely Backbone modernization / uplift.
  • Core,IT & Platforms more likely to be within spend profile ( on average ).
  • Depends on complexity ,e.g., slicing…

An Illustration : Opex Pressure from

  • Overall poor economical scalability of small, smaller & smaller cells.
  • Open impact will depend on level of fixed -mobile integration & the technology modernization level.
  • Dependency of level of automation & degree of zero – touch network state.

The Landscape of 5G




5G will differentiate itself by delivering various improvements

  • 10X : Decrease in latency = Delivering latency as low as 1 ms.
  • 10X : Connection density = Enabling more efficient signaling for lot connectivity.
  • 10X : Experienced throughput = Bringing more uniform , multi-Gbps peak rates.
  • 3X : Spectrum efficiency = Achieving even more bits per Hz with advanced antenna technique.
  • 100X : Traffic capacity = Driving network hyper-densification with more small cells everywhere.
  • 100X : Network efficiency = Optimizing network energy consumption with more efficient processing.

All Flavors of 5G are Developing in Parallel!

All tracks include higher integration and further RF Sip development

5G mm Wave 

  • mmWave 5G technology – disruptive innovation
  • Introduction of mmWave frequencies >24 GHz
  • Adoption of new packaging architectures and platforms
  • Major design changes and new materials required

5G sub 6 GHz

  • Upgrade of 4G technology – incremental innovation
  • Will stay at frequencies < 6GHz 
  • Modification of current RF packaging architectures 
  • Minimal change in BOM

5G IoT

  • Used frequencies < 1GHz
  • To address transfer of data generated by many IoT end devices ( mainly sensors )
  • Still undefined standards / protocols
  • Little to no innovation regarding semiconductor packaging

For more info please visit this blog : What is 5G technology?

see also : 5 Things to know about 5G wireless technology




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What is Cloning?

Cloning is the creation of an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. This means that every single bit of DNA is the same between the both two! You might not believe, but there are human clones among us right now. They’re identical twins, created naturally not made in lab.




There are many types of cloning, some are given below:

Human Cloning

Human Cloning
Twins Cloned baby

Man is not God and shall not play God. Imagine yourself a clone and the only reason you have entered this world is to provide spare organs. What is the purpose of you life?

Purpose of cloning:

  • The production of babies for those such as infertile couples, single women, gays and couples whose children have died.
  • With cloning, doctors who perform plastic surgeries instead of using silicon and others materials which are foreign to the body, will be able to manufacture bone, fat and connective tissue that matches the patient’s tissue exactly

Animal Cloning

What is cloning?
Example of animal cloning
  • The goal of cloning is to take control of the reproductive process.
  • You are able to select the specific combination of genes to get what you want.
  • That’s appealing to people who breed animals

Natural Cloning

  • Plants are easy to clone- gardeners often take cutting to grow new plants which are clones
  • Cloning is an example of asexual reproduction where genetic information comes from just one parent
  • Potato plants reproduce vegetatively by growing tubers, from which the new plant will grow these are clones

Now we discuss more interesting topics:

SIM Cloning

Sim cloning
Image of SIM Cloning

SIM or Subscriber identification Module is a smart card that is include in every cellphone of the GSM family of networks

How to Clone SIM Card?

  • Scan the SIM to extract IMSI and KI, the 128 bit key.
  • Now put the IMSI and Ki into some card software.
  • And then copy it into a new SIM card
  • We now have a cloned SIM

Phone Cloning

How is a Phone Cloned?

  • Capture the ESN/MIN pair or SIM/IMEI pair.
  • Clone the ESN/MIN pair using electronic scanning devices.
  • The cloner reprograms or alters the microchip of any wireless phone.
  • The ESN/MINs are transferred using a computer to a device.
  • These devices are connected to handsets.
  • New information is legitimate phone into the phone.
  • Thus a clone of the legitimate phone is thus obtained.

What is the purpose of cloning?

  • Making fraudulent phone calls
  • Getting owner messages.
  • Using internet on owners bill
  • Using phone to commit a crime.
  • Getting personal information of owner.
  • Listening owner calls.
  • To tease anybody etc.

Cloning Laws Around the World

  • USA

No federal law banning cloning , but several states have passed their own laws to ban the practice. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has also said that anyone in the United States attempting human cloning must first get its permission.

  • Japan

In Japan Human cloning is a crime that is punishable by up 10 years in prison

  • UK

UK has allowed cloning human embryos, but is working to pass legislation to stop total human cloning.

Cloning, Good or Bad

Good

  • People can get an animal that looks the same as the pet they had
  • Scientists can clone organs and help people live longer
  • Scientists can also clone body parts such as ears to surgically attach to a person
  • Cloned animals are safe to eat

Bad

  • The offspring of cloned animals are often born deformed
  • It is against religious beliefs
  • Pets that are cloned often do not come out having the same personality and can look different

Why Cloning is Bad for Society

  • It will contradict the religious beliefs
  • Uncertain results
  • Over population
  • Identity Crisis
  • It may build a new world of fraud and unethical practices
  • Against the law of nature

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